Human Rights and Indian Armed Forces
Human Rights are those minimal rights which every individual must have by virtue of his being a “member of the human family”, irrespective of any other consideration. They are based on mankind’s demand for a life in which the inherent dignity of the human being will receive respect and consideration. Human rights propagate the dignity and freedom of human beings in society. The notion of human rights is the most precious legacy of classical and contemporary human thought to culture and civilization. The struggle to preserve, protect and promote these basic human values has continued in every generation in each society.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN on 10 Dec 1948 in its preamble has proclaimed that “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a common standard of achievements for all people of all nations”. Human rights ideology postulates human dignity and recognition that every human being, irrespective of race, religion, colour or sex, is born equal and entitled to the rights as a human being. The UN Charter pledged to promote and encourage respect for human rights, and envisaged not only the traditional rights but rights like higher standard of living and economic progress.
The constitution of our country provides the basic human rights and fundamental rights to its citizens. Being natural rights, it is of utmost importance that human rights be protected at every cost by each individual and organization in the country. Especially the Indian armed forces which is held in high esteem by the citizens of its country.
In India, the traditional application of humanitarian law to the armed forces is almost as old as the armed conflicts themselves. There are several examples of prescribed humane behaviour for the forces during conflict in Ramayana and in Mahabharata. These are a part of our cultural legacy. Even during British colonial rule of India, the armed forces followed the concept of “Naam, Namak, Nishan: Be Honourable, True to your salt, and uphold the Flag”. In the Kargil war, Indian battalions recovered over 270 dead bodies of Pakistani soldiers after re-capturing posts occupied by them. The Indian troops gave all of them a burial befitting a soldier as per Muslim rites. Upholding human dignity, personal values, and mitigation of collateral hardship to the public are cornerstones of the professional ethos in the Indian Armed Forces. Such an ethos is systematically imbibed in all ranks through training, motivation, and enforcement of stringent discipline, and monitoring of operations. The respect for human rights thus comes naturally to all ranks. Also, secularism, discipline, integrity, loyalty, esprit-de-corps, apolitical outlook are essential values that are inculcated in the forces. These values contribute to their civilized behaviour.
The Indian armed forces have been engaged in CT operations in Jammu and Kashmir and the North-East for the last six decades. While the terrorists and militant organizations carry out gruesome acts of violence and savagery, which are gross violations of the human rights of the other peaceful citizens of the country, it is the armed forces that in performance of their duty are maligned for violating human rights and perpetrating violence. It has to fight militancy on one hand and at the same time be on guard always for any human rights violations on the other hand. It definitely appears to be a very difficult game if one understands the limitations with which the Indian armed forces have to operate in the environment where there is no enemy. While discharging its duties the Indian armed forces are most vulnerable to human rights violations and the same is being exploited by the terrorists/terrorists through the media. The general populace and the media fail to understand the true context of the overall situation before lamenting the armed forces with human rights violations. It must be appreciated that soldiers too are humans who are given to normal human emotions and human vulnerabilities. They also deserve their share of human rights which are invariably not paid heed to by the government and the society as a whole. While it may be fashionable to condemn the armed forces for alleged violation of human rights, activists and human rights watchdog organizations should raise their voice equally forcefully against violation of human rights by terrorists and their ilk. Hence, the Indian Armed Forces image has been tarnished by the local, national and international media which immensely assists the terrorists.
India is signatory to International Humanitarian Law and all 12 conventions on terrorism. India firmly shares the perception of Madrid Declaration, which advocated “harmonisation of domestic law regarding compensation for the victims of terrorism and the drafting of an international statute for the victims of terrorism”. India is one of the active participants in the deliberations of the Counter Terrorism Committee set up by the Chairman of the Security Council pursuant to Resolution 1373. The Indian Armed Forces took immediate cognizance of the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 and voluntarily established its Human Rights Cell in March 1993, six months prior to the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission in India. COAS’ Ten Commandments laying down the Code of Conduct for all ranks operating against armed insurgents and terrorists i.e. Do’s and Don’ts, are recognized by the Indian judicial system, and by the United Nations.
Despite Indian armed forces utmost sensitivity towards Human rights, its has been frequently painted as ‘monstrous institution of the state’ perpetrating widespread human rights violations by those very countries that in the first place are responsible for funding separatism, insurgency and terrorism in India. These allegations are fuelled by large scale media coverage and can only be put in the correct perspective by understanding the methods employed by the various terrorist organizations and the operational environment in which the Indian armed forces operates today. The doubts about human rights conduct of the soldiers in India and abroad arise currently on account of lack of understanding about terrorism and insurgencies, the difficulties faced in dealing with them, and human rights aberrations that take place in such operations.
The media is known to be a powerful force in confrontations between terrorists and security forces. Media influence on public opinion may impact not only the actions of governments/armed forces but also on those of groups engaged in terrorist acts. From the terrorist perspective, media coverage is an important measure of the success of a terrorist act or campaign. Especially in hostage situations, the media may provide the only independent means of information for a terrorist and coverage can complicate rescue efforts. Governments can take the help of the media in an effort to arouse world opinion against the country or group using terrorist tactics. Public diplomacy and the media can also be used to mobilise public opinion in other countries to pressure governments to take, or reject action against terrorism.
The challenge to both the government and press communities is to understand the dynamics of terrorist enterprise and to develop policy options designed to serve the interests of government including the security forces fighting the terrorists, the media, and the society. The media and the armed forces have common interests in seeing that the media are not manipulated into promoting the cause of terrorism or its methods. On the other hand, neither the media nor policymakers and law enforcer want to see terrorism, or CT operations, eroding constitutional freedoms, including that of the press, which one of the pillars of democratic societies. The challenge for policymakers is to explore mechanisms enhancing media/armed forces cooperation to accommodate the citizen and media need for honest coverage, while limiting the gains, uninhibited coverage may provide terrorists or their cause. Communication between the armed forces and the media here is an important element in any strategy to prevent terrorist causes and strategies from prevailing and to preserve democracy.
REALITIES OF OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN COUNTERTERRORISM (CT)
An insurgency is like a child nurtured in its own environment and no two terrorists are similar. They differ substantially from one another and are a product of at least three factors. One is terrain that always influences operations. Another is the quantity of weapons available and the efficiency of its use by the terrorists. The third is the cause and the degree of support that it enjoys from the populace.
Environmental Realities. In general, environment is characterised by the following :-
The general atmosphere is vitiated harbouring mistrust and disloyalty.
The populace, in general, is both the doer and the victim, since it is from this pool that a misguided section rises up to be the terrorists/ undergrounds, forging many misdeeds upon the residual populace.
Three bastions of state administration i.e. bureaucracy, politicians and judiciary come under tremendous pressure because of constant threat of retribution. Terrorists attempt to terrorise and intimidate those in key positions and some are even coerced to acquiesce with them.
Terrorists attempt to politicise and subvert police and Para Military Forces (PMF) and endeavour to induce fear in them through intimidation, lynching and other forms of retribution. Some of these policemen may also identify with the militant cause and harbour a soft corner for them.
Media is by far the most important and effective tool in the entire gamut of a disturbed environment. It is actually comparatively less important what happens than how and what gets reported.
Civil administration largely becomes ineffective. Authority of the government and rule of law stands defunct in the face of jungle rule by the terrorists.
Efforts of government in controlling the situation by enacting rules/ laws are proclaimed as draconian and undemocratic. Defiance of the rule of the land is an established norm of behaviour of the terrorists.
States inimical to our Nation-State continue to wage proxy wars as is being done by Pakistan in J & K and to some extent by our Eastern neighbours in North-East. Terrorists receive covert and overt support in many forms, which in fact, is the lifeline to keep the disturbed situation going.
Nature of Militant Activities and Targets
The environment being confronted by the armed forces will not be complete without understanding the nature of the terrorist’s activities and their targets.
Terrorists snipe at the VIPs/key persons, particularly those who eminently oppose their ideology and those who may be involved in directing/executing operations against them.
Disruption of communications and denial of use of lines of communications by blowing up bridges, railway tracks, and so on by using remotely controlled devices.
Elimination of the sympathisers of the security forces, relatives of police and government officials and those assisting the armed forces.
Kidnapping and hijacking of affluent and prominent people to secure release of apprehended terrorists as well as attract media attention.
Sabotage of government installations to include important offices, treasures, TV/ radio stations, essential services etc.
Ambush important convoys and VIP columns to inflict casualties.
Indiscriminate killing and maiming of innocents in buses, trains and public places to spread terror.
Terrorising society by carrying out political murders.
Terrorists make extensive use of propaganda and psychological operations through sponsored newspapers, posters, leaflets and media.
Nature of Military Operations Conducted by the Armed Forces
Military End State. The desired military end state from CT operations entails creating conditions that are conducive to the attainment of political objectives. Since conflict termination and their political resolution is the ultimate end states sought, such conditions besides enabling the initiatives by the economic and informational elements of national power to consolidate, also facilitate initiation of political dialogue for a negotiated settlement.
Overarching Concept. Since the centre of gravity for such operations is the populace, operations have to be undertaken with full respect to human rights and in accordance with the laws of the land. The application of military power in such operations is so regulated that it enhances the control by civil authorities in the conflict zone besides strengthening their hands. This underscores the importance of people friendly operations that are conducted with a civil face.
Concept of Application of Military Force. It is imperative for any counter insurgency/militancy operation to succeed that an integrated approach by all agencies of the Government is adopted. The basic tenets of successful CT operations are as following :-
People Centric Operations. To attain a secure environment, the military operations should aim, firstly, at neutralising all hostile elements in the conflict zone that oppose or retard the peace initiatives and secondly, at transforming the will and attitudes of the people through a dexterous and integrated application of all resources. The neutralisation of terrorists and their support base must be in consonance with laws of the land so that the civil face of governance is always visible. Terrorists must be afforded full opportunity to surrender and only those terrorists, who do not accept the offer and continue to resist, should be neutralised through kinetic means. For this a liberal and a practical policy should be put in place by the Government. The handling of over ground workers too must always be as per laws of the land. The orchestration of the military operations should be such that they also induce the desired degree of agitation fatigue amongst the supporters of the cause. However, since this lever works both ways, it should be imaginatively employed, as it can prove to be counterproductive and can at times, convert even the champions of non-violence into violence seekers. The endeavour should be to bring about a realisation that fighting the government is a ‘no win’ situation and that their anti government stance will only delay the return of peace and normalcy. Therefore, distancing from the terrorists is in their own interest and the only plausible course of action. However, the manifestation of such a realisation can take from a couple of years to decades as attitudes take time to form and to change.
Manoeuvre versus Attrition Warfare. As the endeavour in such a campaign is to enhance the control of government agencies in the conflict zone, military power should be predominantly employed to target the minds of the terrorists and other antagonist players in the environment. This in turn highlights the importance of manoeuvre warfare, which ensures placing of our resources at a position of advantage vis-à-vis the terrorists. It also helps in creating insecurity for the terrorists that resultantly forces them on the back foot and makes them reactive to our proactive approach. However, such application alone cannot achieve the desired military conditions. Therefore, taking recourse to attrition based warfare concept in the initial stages of the campaign cannot be avoided. The inset figure highlights this aspect.
Integrated Approach. Since the ultimate aim of the national effort is to strengthen the hands of the local civil authorities, the management of the campaign must always show a civil face. Therefore, the counter insurgency operations, notwithstanding the primacy of the military in the initial stages, should always be coordinated at the highest levels through the creation of an ‘Apex Security Mechanism’ headed by the senior state executive. Such an arrangement facilitates the monitoring of various prongs of the campaign in the proper perspective. However, for facilitating synergy, the senior most Army Officer should have the clear responsibility and authority for all operational planning and execution. Some of the recommendations of the Group of Ministers on Internal Security in this regard are placed alongside.
Hence, successful CT operations need to be conducted on the following planes: -
Psychological operations including civic-action programmes.
Intelligence operations to obtain contact/actionable intelligence.
Tactical operations to kill or apprehend terrorists/insurgents and ensure domination of the area by Armed Forces.
CI operations to eliminate insurgency from grassroots.
Lines of Military Operations. The thrust of military operations in the counter terrorist scenario will be on executing coordinated operations ranging from the border areas to the hinterland. Various lines of military operations are :-
Effective sealing of the borders to preclude trans-border movement of terrorists and war waging material. This should be undertaken in an integrated manner to ensure that the terrain, obstacle system, troop deployment and surveillance devices are optimally enmeshed to enable effective sealing operations.
Establishment of a comprehensive Counter Terrorism grid in the hinterland with focus on:-
Denial of population centres to the terrorist.
Providing security to the military lines of communication.
Ensuring security of various vulnerable areas and vulnerable points.
Effective public information and perception management initiatives constitute a vital component of the campaign. This is an area where the media can play a crucial role.
Undertaking civic actions to address the aspirations of the populace and winning their hearts and minds.
Types of Operations. The following are the few operations, which are carried out by the armed forces while operating in counter terrorist environment : -
Ambush. Conventionally it is defined as a surprise attack launched from a concealed position upon an unsuspecting, moving or temporarily halted enemy. The same is applicable while fighting a militant/insurgent/terrorist as well. The ambush is characterised by surprise, speed and violent firepower. The most difficult task in Counter Terrorism environment is to recognize hostiles from amongst innocent civilians. At times hostiles take innocents as their guides at gunpoint. At such times these civilians may suffer casualties. Generally, the hostiles get away fast and try and mix with the locals, which compounds the problem further.
Raid. In conventional warfare, a raid can be said to be an operation, usually small scale, involving a swift penetration into hostile territory to destroy the enemy and his installations/headquarters. It is characterized by surprise, firepower, shock and violence of action. Generally raids are carried out on militant training and administrative camps and hideouts. It is the surprise and shock action with speed, which cause human rights violations if the civilians are around or have been kept as hostage.
Cordon and Search Operations. The aim of undertaking cordon and search of a village may be to screen villagers, apprehend hostiles visiting them or to seize arms and ammunition. Innocent civilians have to suffer throughout the day or till such time search is over. If the terrorists are hiding in an innocent civilian’s house and a shootout takes place, it may cause collateral damage to civilian property. Even if the damage is repaired/ recovered, terrorist organizations get propaganda material to degrade the image of armed forces and the media is always ready to buy such news for their benefit.
Search and Destroy Operations. The armed forces carry out search and destroy operations to either capture/destroy the insurgents/ terrorists and their camps/ hideouts or to recover arms, ammunition, insurgent literature, documents and equipment. A precision surgical operation based on hard intelligence is one of the most effective operations with minimum human right violations.
Spot Searches/Mobile Check Posts. A mobile check post is established to carry out spot checks to apprehend insurgents/suspects, detect and recover arms/ammunition/explosives/documents and other equipment being carried by terrorists/insurgents. It creates a deterrent on insurgent activities by imposing caution and gaining intelligence about insurgent activities. Mobile check posts are established at random without pre-warning and it contributes in lowering of insurgents’ morale, but may lead to human rights violations as the innocents get stranded, searched and get delayed for their jobs.
Hence, the environment in which the armed forces have to operate in a Low intensity conflict Operation (LICO), the following facts emerge: -
Lack of timely intelligence.
Lack of clear-cut political directive.
Inadequate cooperation from the civil and police officials.
Indifferent and non-cooperative attitude of the locals and politicians.
Problems of isolating terrorists.
False allegations by civilians, supportive of or at the behest of terrorists.
False propaganda by terrorists, which could be published/publicized by vested interests or by the media for sensationalism.
Acts of indiscipline by frustrated individuals.
Retaliation or repression by troops suffering casualties.
Called very late to deal with the situations.
Overplaying of restrictions put on locals.
Lack of clarity of role of media in insurgency and professionalism amongst local journalists.
Free and irresponsible media. Chaos and anarchy unleashed by terrorists, forces the media and people to project what the terrorists dictate
MEDIA IN COUNTER TERRORISM OPERATIONS
In India, the rapid growth of media left the armed forces gasping for breath just trying to keep pace. The Kargil war was brought to the sitting rooms live, making Tiger Hill and Tololing household names and so creating a groundswell of nationalistic fervour as never before. The three day long terrorist attack in Mumbai on 26 Nov 2008 was monitored by the world audience on their TV screen. However, the same media was unsparing in bringing the gruesome details of the accidental killing of the three innocent students in Kupwara by the security forces creating a wave of criticism and condemnation of the armed forces. A lot has been learned by the Indian armed forces through their mishandling of the media in Kashmir and proper exploitation in the Kargil War wherein as per Major General AB Sayyad, Additional Director General Public Information of the Indian Army “….the media helped in demoralizing the enemy, even as it raised the morale of own troops”.
The Role of Media in Society and Nation-State
In his treatise ‘On War’, Carl Von Clausewitz identified a holy trinity of the People, Military and the Government without whose support the effective conduct of war is not possible. “The media is an essential link between the three constituents of this trinity.” In civilian parlance the media is also commonly bestowed with the title of the ‘Fourth Estate’, the other three being the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. The main difference between the media and the other three ‘estates’ is that the media believes that it owes allegiance to nobody, to no government or institution, except the people. It is a law unto itself, being answerable or accountable only to its audiences - that too out of the need for self-preservation.
Today’s media sees itself as a watchdog, judge as well as independent observer of international as well as national events. It possesses the potential to make or mar political power structures and thus is a major political actor. In addition, it is an essential component of a nation’s social fabric, conscience-keeper, economic monitor, cultural mouthpiece and a kind of collective emotion regulator. Combining all this, the media emerges as one of the ‘central pillars’ of nationhood, the ‘lifeblood’ of any state, creating awareness and informing the citizenry, shaping public opinion, defining the ‘image’ of the nation in the global consciousness, creating a collective national and international conscience, serving as the glue that links national security to diplomacy, economic development, socio-politics, governance and of course the military. Important role of media in a nation state is :-
(a) Media is essential for acquisition and dissemination of news and other information needed by the masses to form opinion which is especially true in a democracy. Mahatma Gandhi on his first broadcast in the All India Radio studio called the microphone SHAKTI.
(b) Forum for development, exchange of public opinions and attitudes. The public opinion is the direct result of media projections to the people’s instincts and presumptions which are shaped substantially by the media over a long period of time.
(c) Act as a ‘watchdog’ for the people by preventing/revealing abuses by institutions of power and also educate the people. Billy Russell accompanied the English Army in Crimea which made Generals realise the power of war dispatches and began to fear the might of the pen. It was for the first time that the War Office realized that the public had some say in conduct of wars.
Military- Media Relationship
Historically speaking, military-media relationships have generally been based on mutual suspicion the world over and India is no exception to this rule. The army and media are interdependent. They do need each other and in fact in today’s world they cannot do without each other. The obvious corollary thus should be of a healthy and a harmonious relationship. However, they view each other with suspicion.
Characteristics of the Relationship. An analysis of the roles of the military and the media and their mutual expectations indicates the relationship as complex and characterized by following features :-
It is symbiotic and both are mutually dependent to perform their respective roles. Both are components of national power and responsible to protect national power but incapable of performing single handedly.
In a democracy it is complementary. Both have the common aim of upholding the constitution. Military protects sovereignty by preventing wars by deterrence, winning wars or overcoming national crises within and the Media protects the citizens’ rights by keeping them informed, educating them on national security, preparation and indirectly voicing the strategy of deterrence by projecting state of readiness for a military struggle.
It is collaborative, there are many specific aspects in which they can cooperate and collaborate for mutual good. For development of the military their problems and inadequacies in terms of resources get highlighted more effectively by the media. An Indian paper in the Kargil War highlighted a severe shortage of clothing and the soldiers got it. Similarly the media gets a wide circulation and economic gains with the sensational war coverage.
It is adversarial. The military attempts to progress operations by restricting flow of information, the media detests controls. There is a general lack of understanding and empathy for each others’ roles, motivations, strengths and weaknesses. There is a mutual distrust and suspicion of each others’ intentions and lack of understanding the constraints. The essence of successful warfare is secrecy and the essence of successful journalism is publicity.
Difference in perceptions, from the point of view of media and armed forces are as under :-
Conflicting Ideologies. It must be appreciated that there are fundamental conflicts in the basic ideologies of the two institutions. While the military is trained to win i.e. impose its will by fighting, the media is trained to report what it perceives to be the truth at any cost. To win, the military needs to maintain secrecy of its operational plans and conceal some information both from its enemy and its own people. On the other hand the media’s role of informing the public enjoins it to overcome secrecy and report even unpalatable but inevitable aspects of operations.
Differing Stands. On account of their conflicting philosophies as well as different outlooks and experiences both the institutions have come to adopt differing positions on some basic issues. Some of the important ones are : -
Operational Security and Troop Safety. Both agree that the media must cover war and operations while ensuring that media reports do not impair operational security and troop safety. The media feels that since it is responsible for informing the public, it must be trusted. But the military feels that it is up to the operational commander to decide which piece of information impairs operational security.
Access to Battlefield. The media considers that it has a right to be at the site of conflict and report independently. While accepting the inevitable media presence in the battlefield the military feels that the presence of a large number of independently moving reporters in the military operational area is impermissible in certain combat situations.
Military Image. While the military considers that the media must assist in projecting a good image, as it is necessary for winning hearts and minds of people, the media feels that it must report both good and bad news, irrespective of the consequences. During World War II, ironically, it was the British media which glamorized Rommel, The Desert Fox, described as a General comparable to Hannibal, who inspired affection amongst his men and respect from his enemy.
Media Attitudes. The general media attitude towards the military is that of feeling superiority and self-righteousness. It feels that the military denies access unnecessarily and feels restrictions imposed by the military on the media promote ‘news management’. It believes that the military is not doing enough to make its jargon to be understood by the media and the public and thus has itself to blame for the poor coverage in the media.
The problem of media in interacting with Indian Armed Forces can be summarized as under:-
Inaccessibility of Indian armed forces to the media for any first-hand information. Media works generally on deadlines and the information from Indian armed forces is invariably delayed. Suspicion in the mind of the media that Indian armed forces is not forthcoming with information and carries out censorship at its level.
Exaggeration on the part of the media of the actual local version of the event.
Media tends to shy away from defence services due to various politics, economic matters and reasons such as their obsession with social issues. It lacks understanding and knowledge of the defence forces.
Journalism is largely individualistic, very independent minded and even egoistic. Reporting is based on perception of the journalist.
Objectivity and human error in reporting.
Commercialization of media and it being largely owned by agencies outside the country thus them not being nationalists in outlook.
Media is torn between the need to survive and the search for truth.
A feeling of superiority and self righteousness by the media.
Conflicting philosophies of media and the Indian armed forces.
The media on its part has to understand the Indian armed forces and the circumstances under which it has to operate and work towards better transparency in interaction with the Indian armed forces. The solution to the CI situation lies in severing the link between the terrorists and local population. Media is the most important tool which can help in achieving this task. However the role played by media in LIC has left much to be desired and needs careful analysis.
Access and Controls over Media in Battlefield
Free Access to Media.
(a) Justification. There are some more basic reasons for the media to be given access to the battlefield in a democracy like India. Freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed by the Constitution. Citizen’s ‘right to know is accepted in all democracies. Media has an important responsibility of informing the public, independently recording events for history and acting as a ‘watchdog’ of the public. It must be assisted in performing its crucial role for democracy to thrive. Soldiers who are martyred in war represent the values of their societies.
(b) Benefits of Free Media. Free media bestows benefits to the national cause. Free flow of information and ideas brings out the truth to the people. Superior merits of truth reveal to the people which facts and ideas to believe. Diversity of news and views convinces the people that the news flow is free.
Controls over Media.
(a) Justification. Every freedom has certain limits. Unaccountable freedom is lethal. In India such curbs are sanctioned by Article 19 of the Constitution. The main justifications for imposing certain controls over the media are :-
(i) To ensure operational security, troop safety, conduct of operations should not be hampered needlessly by the presence of a large number of journalists moving about on their own and that proper perspective is maintained while miseries of war are being reported, especially in the visual media.
(ii) To sustain the national resolve to win.
(b) Effects of Excessive Restrictions on Media. Overdose of the best of medicines may kill. Similarly excessive restrictions on media have profound ill effects as follows :-
(i) Media may begin to publish the enemy’s version of the story.
(ii) Loss of credibility of the media.
(iii) Restricting access has the effect of curbing on the spot reporters, who know the truth and consequently strengthening armchair commentators, who base their views on third party reports and speculation.
(iv) Stonewalling the media does not reduce its ability to hurt with bad reporting but cripples its ability to help us with good reporting.
Both the media and the military, so central to the preservation of democracy, function for the welfare of the nation and society at large and are interdependent. Their often contentious relationship is characterised by the fact that theirs is a symbiotic relation, in the sense that both need each other to perform their respective roles. They are complementary and collaborative since both have the common aim of upholding the constitution. The military protects sovereignty by winning wars and the media protects the right of the citizens by keeping them informed. At the same time it is an adverse relationship which causes conflict. The military attempts to support its operations by restricting and modifying the flow of information, the media brook no constraints in its working.
The difference in perceptions, the hurdles and the conflicting needs of military and media need to be interfaced. The paradox can be only resolved by mutual understanding. The military needs to grant the maximum possible freedom and access to the media for covering operations. This has been aptly recognized by none other than Field Marshal S H F J Manekshaw. While speaking on the occasion of releasing Lt Gen Depinder Singh’s book ‘The IPKF in Sri Lanka’ on 19 Nov 91 at New Delhi, the Field Marshal recalled that in 1971 journalists were given full liberty to cover the operations and hence they (Armed Forces) received excellent cooperation. He continued “...on the contrary, everything was kept secret in the IPKF operation. If the Press had been given full freedom and taken into confidence, the IPKF operations would have gotten a good Press”. He further deplored that even in anti-terrorist operations in Assam and Kashmir a high level of secrecy was being maintained.
The armed forces and media therefore must understand the compulsions of each other. Only by this will there be a change in attitude both collectively and individually. They both need to take certain measures to bridge their gap and harmonize their relationship.
Media Responsibility in Low-Intensity Conflicts
In Counter Terrorism operations, if the armed forces want to emerge victorious in the battle of winning hearts and minds of the people, they need to have media on their side. For this an effective media management is required. However it would be naïve and disastrous to mistake ‘media management’ for ‘news management’ and attempt the latter.
Defence is news and people are deeply interested in information, real hard information which is sparse. The need for credible information is felt when involved in low intensity conflicts, insurgencies and providing aid to civil power. During these operations the military comes in for flak hence an urgent need to resolve the problem of communication between the military and the media. The national interest demands a solution urgently and for posterity.
In low intensity conflicts since media inadvertently becomes a tool of publicity and recognition, it stands to lose credibility of its clientele unless it takes a moral stand. The terrorists seek to achieve their goal of breaking the spirit of the opposition by creating sensation in the ranks of armed forces, public and international media. The media consider it their duty to report all that they see or perceive, not only to satisfy the ‘citizens’ right to know’ but also because terrorists actions sell well. Such a naturally symbiotic relationship between the media and terrorists sometimes leads to empathy among the journalists (for the terrorism) and is often exploited by the terrorist. This tendency gets reinforced by the compunction of the reporters to get ‘scoops’, ‘exclusives’ and ‘investigative factual’ in order to score over their rivals. This tendency leads to competitive sensationalism, nexus between terrorists and journalists and sometimes to indiscretions to the extent of jeopardizing operations. During the hijacking of the Lufthansa Airlines jet to Mogadishu in 1977 a journalist broadcasted over radio that the Captain of the jet was passing messages in the garb of normal transmissions, leading to the execution of the pilot by the hijackers. Similarly, intense pressures from the media on the Indian Government during the Kandahar crisis forced wrong decisions thus sending wrong signals.
Unconventional conflicts are here to stay. Media’s role in such conflicts is very sensitive for the state, humanity and their own survival and fine balance has to be maintained by the media. Neither should it become a tool of the terrorists nor should it blindly tow the line of the establishment. It must maintain its credibility by objective reporting. Thus the media must work out its own code of conduct. USA’s most renowned newspaper, The New York Times in 1989 editorialized against the publication of terrorist threats. The British home secretary banned direct radio and TV interviews with the spokesmen of outlawed groups.
General Impact of Media on Society in CT Environment
The vernacular and regional press have a larger cumulative readership than that of the national dailies. It is these Indian language newspapers that actually mould public opinion at large due to their regional flavour. In CT environment, these papers have a larger local impact. The guaranteed freedom of media has led to unchecked growth of the media in India. The media has also come under pressure from the terrorists in the insurgency ridden states. It moulds the public opinion by its selection and presentation of news, analysis and comments. Media provides feedback to policy makers on the pulse of society.
Because of the irresistible news value of terrorist/insurgent actions, a symbiotic relationship tends to develop between the insurgents and the media. The terrorists stage events and the media, perhaps helpless and unconscious of the consequences, reports them. The impact of a terrorist attack can only be felt if it is reported. The compulsion of the reporters to get ‘scoops’, exclusives and investigative factual in order to score over their rivals reinforces this tendency. Hence media enhances the impact of terrorism on society and helps it grow. This occurs consciously or otherwise by highlighting the might of the movement vis-à-vis helplessness of the government machinery leading to demoralization of the public, which in turn makes potential sympathizers move closer to the insurgency.
Media isolates the terrorists/ insurgents by depicting their acts in the true colours of ruthlessness and brutality. This arouses anger, anguish and revulsion in society leading to alienation of the terrorists from the support base.
Impact of Media on Terrorists.
Media provides the insurgents an exaggerated sense of importance as news maker. Gallup Poll of 1986 in USA proves that 51% people felt that Press gave too much coverage to terrorists and this increased the chances of future terrorist acts. It propagates and enhances the ‘terror effect’ of violent acts.
Terrorist actions are designed to play to the galleries via the media, which magnifies the element of horror into every domestic household. This creates a backlash of public opinion and the establishment appears fragile and helpless. All this is ultimately designed to provide a bargaining lever to the terrorists for securing a potent bargaining lever.
Media displays the ‘muscles’ of the terrorist/insurgent movement, displaying a Robinhood kind of image, especially when these movements are backed by some external power. It extends the local effect of violent acts to a wider area and even threats get wide publicity. It provides the terrorists/insurgents with a large domestic and international audience. It confers recognition and status on the movement, conveying that it is a ‘struggle for a just cause’.
Terrorists/insurgents play to the media and begin to manipulate it.
Impact of Media on Security Forces in CT Environment. Being part of the same polity, the security forces are also affected by the media, both positively and negatively. These effects are:-
Assists the security forces in countering terrorist propaganda, especially false allegations by revealing the truth. This is possible only when a media policy exists.
Motivates and builds morale of security forces by recognizing their sacrifices thus giving them a sense of fulfilment.
Conversely, media’s biased and negative coverage of CT operations has an adverse effect on troop morale.
Sometimes compromises operational security because of indiscrete leaks of plans, moves and activities of security forces. e.g Mumbai terrorist attack of 26 Nov 2008.
Overzealous reporters sometimes hamper negotiations during hostage crisis.
Presence of media during actual operations helps curb human rights violations and also counter false charges of human rights violations e.g. Operation BLACK THUNDER and Hazratbal crisis.
ALLEGED HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, ITS CAUSES AND REPORTING BY MEDIA
The armed forces may be called upon to provide aid to civil authorities for maintenance of law and order, counter insurgencies, combat terrorism and help the public during natural calamities. While undertaking counter terrorist operations, the armed forces come in contact with the public and unavoidably, use some force, minimum though it may be. The understandable but misplaced anger of those who do not come out unscathed may well be directed against the armed forces, in the form of accusations of human rights violations. The armed forces are thus required to handle difficult situations during CT duties with firmness and courtesy so that its reputation for being impartial, friendly and professionally competent is maintained.
By and large, the basic instinct and reaction of a soldier is to protect human rights and uphold human dignity. The factors responsible for development of this attitude and reaction to a large extent are: -
Military Discipline. The strict military discipline militates against any wrongdoing by a soldier. A soldier is trained to do only the correct and proper things from the time he is enrolled into the service. Any violation is strictly dealt with by the superior authorities.
Compassion and Camaraderie. A soldier develops these attributes in the course of his service, as he has to frequently deal with casualties and operate in an environment of danger. These stand him in good stead while dealing with the civilian population and forbid an individual from violating human rights.
Treat Everyone Alike. Armed Forces are an all India cadre and treat everyone alike. This contributes in upholding human dignity and human rights of persons belonging to all communities.
Apolitical Entity. Armed Forces are not politically aligned with any ideology or party. They serve the State and uphold the Fundamental Rights of the individuals as enshrined in our Constitution.
Need to Cultivate Civilian Population and Creation of Goodwill. Armed Forces can function more effectively and smoothly during peace and war if the civilian population is with them in their endeavour. This makes them more considerate to civilian needs and to uphold human rights.
Common Allegations of Human Rights Violations. There are occasions when the armed forces are faced with serious allegations of human rights violations. Some of the common allegations of human rights violations are : -
Rape and molestation.
Illegal arrest, arrest of innocent people and wrongful confinement.
Death in custody.
High handedness, censorship, Ill-treatment, discrimination against a particular community.
Causing death/injury due to negligence and torture.
Inhuman and degrading behaviour and cruelty to fellow human beings.
Interference with right to work, earn a living and denial of procuring the necessities.
Harassment, extortion, theft, trespass, occupation of any premises/property, desecration of a religious place etc.
Reasons of Human Rights Violations.
Nature of CT Operations. With the aim of avoiding being predictable and often due to the scanty information available, the operations by the armed forces are often launched at random without pre warning and may lead to human right violations in terms of causing inconvenience and delay to the locals. At times casualties might also result.
Training of the Armed Forces. A soldier’s training lasting over years puts him in the correct frame of mind to fight a conventional war which is his primary task. Toughened physical and mental conditioning, aggressive, bold action and shoot to kill are the hallmark of his training. Even though, they are given training for operations in the CT environment prior to their induction in such operations, it is quite likely that their basic training as soldiers govern their actions in peak of encounters especially when bullets are directed on him resulting in causalities of his comrades. Compounded by the presence of civilians in the vicinity, they at times get caught between the crossfire and thus violation of human rights result.
Basic Handicap. Who/where is the enemy? A fear of the unknown continuously harbours in the minds of a soldier due to the uncertainties, which they face during the course of action. These lead to hardening of attitudes and stiffness in action. The armed forces function against an unknown enemy who is familiar with the terrain, is capable of using sophisticated arms and enjoys the support of local populace, media and human rights organizations.
One Sided Human Rights. While the actions of the armed forces are closely monitored by human rights organizations, the same is not applicable to the acts by the terrorists. The media too, is apparently oblivious to the blatant human rights violations by the terrorists. More often than not, the media underplay the human rights violations by terrorists for fear of retaliation by the terrorist organisations and sometimes advertently or inadvertently highlight the human rights violations by security forces to seek favours from terrorists.
Lack of Knowledge of Laws Guarding Human Rights. Due to the acute shortage of officers, there are a number of occasions when the operations are being handled by Junior and Non Commissioned Officers who might not be adequately equipped with knowledge pertaining to laws regarding human rights. In such circumstances despite the best intentions, violations of human rights may occur.
Emphasis on Instant and Tangible Results. The units and formations which are employed in CT operations are under constant pressure to show results in a quick time frame. The success is invariably measured in terms of the number of weapons captured and the numbers of terrorists killed. This also leads to an unhealthy competition and results in one-upmanship and forces the units to carry out desperate and irrational actions sometimes, which results in violations of human rights.
Lack of Trained and Professional Interrogator. The Armed forces especially the Army does not have an institution that can teach the basics of interrogation to the officers and other junior leaders. The troops on ground in enthusiasm to extract the actionable information inadvertently violate human rights.
Inadequate Time Available to Interrogator. As per the existing regulations the apprehended suspect is to be handed over to the police within 24 hours. This included travel time from the site of the incident in inhospitable areas to the nearest police station. Moreover the information becomes in-actionable after some time. Hence, the time available for interrogation is inadequate and in order to extract information sometimes it so happens that harsh and cruel methods are adopted to gain information which results in the violation of human rights.
Casualty to Own Troops. The security forces tend to over react when some casualty occurs to their own comrade. This at times leads to the violation of human rights.
Use of Undesirable Method to Obtain Information. In a scenario where there is a void in the intelligence picture and there is pressure to obtain some worthwhile actionable information, the individual gets tempted to use undesirable methods leading to the violation of human rights.
Provocation by the Terrorists. The terrorists at times operate under the cover of the local population. The terrorists fire at the security forces and then merge with the local population. This provokes the security forces to return fire which in turn causes injuries to the local population resulting in violation of human rights.
Low Level of Discipline. In case a unit or a subunits discipline is not of high standard, the troops tend to react adversely in a tight situation which often leads to the violation of human rights.
Role of Media. The armed forces operations are carried out strictly on a need to know basis with the aim of maintaining secrecy of plans. As per the prevalent instructions on the subject, only certain nominated functionaries of the armed forces are permitted to interact with the media. This arrangement provides very little or at times no information to the press. In such a scenario, there are numerous cases of wrong reporting by the media, mainly for want of accurate information from the armed forces. To add to the problem is the intimidation of the local press by the terrorists. This feature is exploited by the terrorists to the fullest to show the armed forces as brute instruments of the government involved in rampant violation of human rights.
Causes of Media Highlighting Allegations of Human Rights Violations
Investigative Reporting. Majority of dailies attempt investigative reporting in an attempt to highlight various human rights violations by the Indian Armed Forces and also at times, with a degree of anti-establishment leaning. They are more than keen to project a negative image of the armed forces, with a view to impress upon the international forums that they are champions of human rights.
Regional Media. In Kashmir/North Eastern States now, and in Punjab during the troubled times, the regional media was coerced into silence or turned pro-insurgents. The regional and local newspapers are the most important as they mould the opinion of the target group that matters in the area of conflict.
Lack of Basic Expertise on Insurgency Matters. The journalists in India lack basic education on military matters. This lack of knowledge gets aggravated in matters relating to lengthy terrorist operations. It results in inaccurate and misleading reports based on their own perception and inclination. The majority of media persons display an abysmal paucity of specialised knowledge about the Defence Services. Moreso, the media has little or no knowledge about terrorist modus operandi which becomes pronounced during particular event reporting especially without knowledge of the overall picture.
Unauthorised Reporting. It is unfortunate that the media in India lacks discipline and self-restraint. It publishes a lot of controversial news, without the support of evidence. These new items are always derogatory to military operations, motivation and morale of troops. The press does the damage by printing adverse comments, in catchy headlines while the rebuttals are printed only in fine print.
Focus on Commercial Objectives. Most newspapers are a product of business and operate on business philosophy of ‘what can sell and how’. The old concept that a newspaper represented ideals, people’s conscience or the nation’s ethos has worn out and outdated.
Obsession with Violence. Television has increasingly been propagating the cult of violence and war. The media’s obsession with the depiction of violence has reached such a state that an act of terrorism in Kashmir was depicted in the BBC as a sweeping war being waged between the Indian Armed Forces and the terrorists, lifting file shots conveniently, if inadvertently from the violence ridden Chechnya.
Recommendations for the Indian Armed Forces/Government
Information Warfare – Principle of War. Public affairs planning for military operations should be conducted concurrently with operational planning, and this should be institutionalised in written guidance or policy.
Creating Media Awareness. The urgent step that needs to be taken is to create ‘media awareness’ within the armed forces. Already a step has been taken in the right direction with the introduction of a media package in the curriculum of training institutions. There is also a need to conduct seminars on various facets of military-media relations at the field and static formations.
Media an Equal Partner. In our democratic nation the media should be accepted as an equal partner working for the good of the people and the country at large. In the effort towards building a more positive image of the armed forces, the media must be encouraged to report on operations by being present at the scene of action if security permits. Accurate and correct information must be made available to media personnel and maximum access possible should be permitted. This will help evolve a better relationship with the media, and should be borne in mind by military personnel.
Rapport with Media. A conscious effort needs to be made to build up a rapport with media at all levels and more so at the level of senior commanders and staff officers. Interaction by way of organising seminars and guest lectures, mutual visits, inviting articles of eminent media persons in professional military journals and contribution of papers for professional media journals by service officers must be encouraged at all levels as a matter of policy. Informal interaction between the military and the media needs to be fostered and encouraged. Such a policy will pay handsome dividends in the longer perspective.
Ground Rules. Set of firm ground rules should be established as a guide for a mutually beneficial relationship. This relationship should be based on a positive, open and anti-media bias of the armed forces. The media on its part should be objective and fair, as also be understanding about the constraints under which the armed forces have to operate.
Transparency and Media Pools. Transparency must form a cornerstone of the media policy. The armed forces as an institution needs to realise that there is a requirement for greater transparency and interaction with the media. It will lead to greater understanding and awareness of military matters by the masses. Just how transparent can be of help was witnessed when, BBC showed a live encounter between the Indian armed forces and the terrorists in Kashmir valley. The television report showed that the Indian armed forces had offered the terrorist a chance to surrender, who instead responded by opening fire at the Indian armed forces. In the ensuing encounter, the terrorist was killed. The report went in favour of the Indian armed forces and that too by a foreign news agency that has often been accused of bias. An effective way of achieving this is by forming ‘Media Pools’ as was done by the USA in the Gulf War and by the UK in the Falklands War. These pools must be composed of accredited and security cleared representatives of international, national and regional media and nominated by their parent organizations. These pools must be activated during peace, low intensity conflicts and war and kept in readiness to be moved to the scene of action at short notice. Such a system will facilitate the media to cover operations in remote locations by being present at the scene of action, which it cannot otherwise do. Close coordination between the media and military to build confidence is most essential during peacetime to achieve the best results during war.
Feedback System. The armed forces must institute a regular feedback system to gauge the effect of media coverage of defence related issues on different categories of audience viz. citizens from different regions and strata, ex servicemen, troops and their families. Reputed survey organizations may have to be requisitioned to conduct opinion polls amongst the people at regular intervals to get the correct feedback. The Military Intelligence (MI) Directorate must institute measures to get direct feedback from troops and their families. This information must form the basis for formulation of media objectives, selection of propaganda themes, mid course corrections and for selecting themes for any research work in organizational interest.
Delegation of Authority to Interact with the Media. The authority to interact with the media persons should be delegated down to brigade and battalion levels. There should be no delay in meeting and interacting with correspondents, simply because official sanction has not been received. A few military commanders will create faux pas, but in the overall information battle, the open stance of the armed forces will ultimately inspire confidence.
Training on Media Education. Media education for troops fighting the proxy war must begin at the level of the junior commissioned officers and non - commissioned officers. The training capsule should be practical and form part of the pre - induction training of a units being inducted for CT operations. Training should include the following : -
Preparing them to interact with the media and removing any inhibition / fear of the media.
Role of the media, generating media awareness.
Organization and role of the PRO and handling of media situations.
Handling of press briefings, conferences, interviews etc.
Media Training in Units. Selected officers and junior commissioned officers can be put through ‘unit media course' training. One of the qualified officers can be nominated as ‘Unit Information Officer' (UIO) – the Public Relations Officer’s (PRO) counterpart at unit level.
Assist Media in Providing Instant Coverage of an Incident. In a LIC environment, free movement for the media is a problem. The terrorists who feed the news that suits them exploit this situation. If the Indian armed forces can take the media up to the spot, the initiative will be with them to silence the human rights activists. But this may be selectively done keeping the security and operational requirements in mind.
Vernacular Press. The armed forces have to give the vernacular media more attention and respect. The vernacular media modifies the mood of the people and shapes the political leanings in the region of operations. Overemphasis to please the English and the foreign media tends to alienate the regional press. The armed forces should aim to win over the local press and the same should be seen in their actions.
Credibility of the Public Relations Officers. In order that Public Relations Officers carry out their duties effectively, it is necessary that they maintain close liaison with editors, correspondents, editorial staff and electronic media. However more important than this, is their credibility. For this they must have constant and easy access to information at their respective station of appointment.
Seek Assistance of the Media. The government and the Indian armed forces should not hesitate to turn to the media for their professional assistance in handling incidents and in limiting their derivative societal repercussions.
Press Briefings. Regular press briefings must be organised for the press to ensure that they are fully in picture of on-going operations by the designated official.
Establishing a Government/Armed Forces Terrorism Information Response Centre. The Government might consider to establish a Terrorism Information Response Centre (TIRC). Such a centre, by agreement with the media, could have on call (through communication links) a rapid reaction terrorism reporting pool composed of senior network, wire service, and print media representatives. Network coverage of incidents would then be coordinated by the network representative in the centre. Such a centre could be headed by a government spokesperson (the Terrorism Information Coordinator, TIC) who could seek to promptly seize the information and contexting initiative from the particular terrorist group. Too often, when terrorism incidents occur, there is a vacuum of news other than the incident itself, and by the time the government agencies agree on and fine tune what can be said and what positions are to be taken, the government information initiative is lost.
Damage Control Measures. This is a very important aspect in view of the alleged human rights abuses. Monitoring news items and issuing regular handouts and rejoinders to contradict such malicious propaganda is the best way out.
Civic Action Programme. Civic action programmes such as conduct of medical and veterinary camps, repair and re-construction of civic amenities, conduct of recruitment rallies, fauji melas and so on must be publicized and adequately reported by the media , in particular vernacular press.
Security of Media Personnel. During conflicts the aspect of physical security to media personnel is crucial. The media cannot function without it and there is no one better suited to provide it than the security forces. Even during LIC operations, to counter the threat from militants, the security forces must make arrangements to provide physical security to the press premises, personnel and infrastructure. This is a difficult task but must be done, especially since it promotes the unspoken understanding of ‘give and take’.
Review of Security Parameters. Military must work out the security parameters in consultation with the Press Council of India and eminent media persons to replace the system of censorship during peace and war. The Indian Officials Secret Act must be reviewed in the current context. This will go a long way towards enhancing the credibility of the armed forces.
Budget and Resources. The PR budget of a defence establishment must be increased manifold to cover realistic demands of an establishment of this size. On the other hand expenditure on training and provision of resources such as number of PROs, their transport, equipment and communications needs to be enhanced. Quality work in media requires good money, case in point – the media campaign “Do You Have It in You” visualized and created by professional advertisers to motivate the youth to join the armed forces.
Recommendations for the Media
More than the military, it is the media's role, which is more important in countering terrorism. It is essential that the media retains its sense of balance, be responsible and be fair in reporting. There will always be a tendency to tilt towards the terrorists, since their activities invariably are anti-establishment and sensational. The recommendations for the media are given in the succeeding paragraphs.
The News. Following points must be kept in sight while reporting the news : -
To foster credibility, the government and the Indian media must be the first to report all activities in an insurgency.
Terrorist activities should be covered mainly with a view to bring them into focus without comments or opinions. Since no terrorist activity is positive, it will automatically bring out their negative side.
Emphasise on human rights violations by the terrorists.
Cover the successes of security forces in adequate details.